By Shaleen Porwal

At the start of this year, as I was navigating through the Regenerative Building Blocks of the Wellbeing Economy Alliance (WEAll), I paused when I read, “People safe & healthy in their communities, rather than necessitating vast expenditures on treating, healing & fixing”. And in the definition of the health goal, it appropriately mentions, “both mental & physical.” 

Being a mental health advocate myself, this resonated so well with me. I am practising the science of Positive Psychology that focuses on what works well for people and how we can make it even better. This combination piqued my interest and paved my way to be able to contribute to the WEAll network.

The Wellbeing Economy talks about Mindsets that, “…economies should have human… wellbeing” and this encompasses the mental and emotional states besides physical safety, therefore the need permeates through all humans, irrespective of their trade and beliefs. This includes teachers.

I am focusing on teachers because they are an incredibly special group of employees who are empowered with the unique responsibility of shaping the future of a nation through their everyday interaction with young humans, who in turn will become into adults and will be taking up the responsibility of adding value to their nation, themselves, their family, and their community.

Every interaction that we have with another person, has the potential to bring about a notable change in our emotions. This change in emotions further leads to the development of thoughts and subsequently into action. Every day at a school, frequent communication channels are established between teachers and students, among teachers, and among student peers. These collaborations are vital for the functionality of performance and behaviour – students and teachers – for the continuity of “business as usual” i.e., a day in school. 

There are global reports on mental health that we have been made aware of and repercussions which we are observing in our local contexts as well, with a radical shift in the psychological state of children, teachers, and families, and that the World Health Organisation has fully acknowledged as follows: “…there has been increasing acknowledgement of the significant role mental health plays in achieving global development goals, as illustrated by the inclusion of mental health in the Sustainable Development Goals…”  

With the advent of the global pandemic – COVID-19 – Vulnerability, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity (‘VUCA’) are adding fuel to fire. All of us, from a national level to an individual level, are struggling through it with our fair share of challenges currently. 

However, with a solution-focused approach, I want to see the silver lining of this dark ‘VUCA’ cloud.

We have surpassed the time where we put our resources to destigmatise psychological dysfunction and make efforts for it to be viewed in the light of normalcy. There are already examples of systems, companies, and collaborations that are disintegrating because they are unable to manage the emotional states of employees – after all, the organisation comprises of humans. According to a recent news report, “Mental and emotional well-being are now one of the most important topics in many companies”.

Considering a school as an employer for the teachers, most of the psychological challenges either for teachers or for students pertain to emotions and anxiety. These non-verbal cues need unique skills and methods to tackle and address and at initial stages as a proactive mechanism. We are not in a situation to imagine a scenario where we see attrition of teachers in a similar proportion and events of school dropouts due to the negligence of mental well-being.

Therefore, it calls for:

  1. Accepting this emotional ‘Vulnerability’,
  2. Creating an ‘Understanding’ for each other and the ecosystem, 
  3. All of us coming together for ‘Collaborative’ exercise with experts and within the system, and
  4. Doing what humans have historically always been best at – ‘Adaptability’, in the face of every adversity

Thereby creating a healthy and transparent environment where the teachers and students can freely speak about their psychological challenges to appropriate authorities – a psychologically safe ecosystem with the intent of finding solutions.

As a practitioner myself, below are few recommendations:

  1. Invitation by school management and principal, for teachers to participate in designing well-being policies and systems, in partnership with well-being service providers
  2. This will help in addressing the local pain points by customising the needs of the individual school cultures
  3. Create a transparent and permeable climate for open conversations around challenges in managing psychological distress – walking the talk
  4. Proactively recording and addressing instances of signs and observation by teachers of their students through this established well-being machinery
  5. Including vocabulary, integrating practices and interventions in school curriculum – this will have a double advantage, i.e., it will be an effective strategy to enhance the mental well-being of the current workforce, as well as it will equip today’s students (future workforce) with the skillset for managing well-being in their times of distress
  6. Working on changing definitions and popular beliefs around most widely misrepresented terms like success, failure, vulnerability, emotions, and the like. 
  7. Appreciating meaningful and bigger picture initiatives taken by teachers and students

We know that we are cognitive misers and implementation of a schooling system with a psychologically safe ambience might sound financially unwanted and time-consuming, the truth is that there is no quick fix to it. It will not only save time and effort in the long run but also create a healthy systemic effect for a Wellbeing Economy to function automatically with enhanced belonging to the organisation and finding deeper meaning in education – both for students and teachers – and to the nation.

As I connect the dots backwards, I figure out that this is exactly what Goal Number 3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 2030 talks about i.e., Target 3.4 “…promote mental health and well-being

About the author

Shaleen Porwal is a Positive Parenting and Education practitioner, based in Singapore. This blog forms part of the Faces of the Wellbeing Economy series, sharing expert opinions from across the WEAll network.


  1. American Psychological Association. Apa dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association. 
  2. American Psychological Association. Apa dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association. 
  3. Brown Brené. (2019). Dare to lead: Brave work, tough conversations, whole hearts. Random House Large Print Publishing. 
  4. Chuan, W. P. (2021, July 16). Commentary: The coming resignation tsunami – why many may leave their jobs in a pandemic economy. CNA. 
  5. Edmondson, A. C. (2019). The fearless organization: Creating psychological safety in the workplace for learning, innovation, and growth. John Wiley & Sons. 
  6. Singer, T. & Ricard, M. (2015). Caring economics. Picador. 
  7. WEAll. (2021, March 18). Home. Wellbeing Economy Alliance.
  8. What vuca really means for you. Harvard Business Review. (2014, August 1). 
  9. World Health Organization. (n.d.). Mental health. World Health Organization. 

By Gary Stevenson

In 2008, I started a job predicting interest rates and the strength of the world’s largest economies.  In the thirteen years since then, financial markets, economists, and global central banks, predicted a recovery for both interest rates and the economy in every single year from 2009 to 2020.

Despite these twelve consecutive years of predicted recovery, now, in 2021, interest rates all over the world, much like the global economy, remain at emergency levels.  This was true even before the onset of the Covid-19 economic crisis.

So why have economic forecasts, as well as the recovery of economies, been so disappointing since the 2008 crisis?  I have devoted the last twelve years of my life to figuring this out.

The logic behind these optimistic predictions has been as follows:

The economic collapse of 2008, as well as the prolonged “Great Recession” that has followed it, were both what economists would call “demand crises”.  That means that, at their core, they are caused by society, as a whole, not spending enough money.  When people don’t spend enough money, businesses can’t sell their products, and they respond by closing down, shrinking, or stopping hiring.  That pushes up unemployment and pushes down wages, leaving people with even less money to spend, making the problem worse.

Modern economics is well familiar with this kind of problem, and has two broad solutions which can be used.  The first, often referred to as “fiscal stimulus”, refers to the government boosting spending and employment directly, either by giving money to people, or large scale spending and investment projects.  The second, often called “monetary policy”, refers to making large amounts of low interest rate loans, via the banking system, in the hope that companies and individuals will use the cheap loans to increase their own spending and investment.

After the 2008 crisis, at first, both of these policies were used in large amounts.  Soon afterwards, however, with the election of an austerity-focused government in the UK, and the emergence of the sovereign debt crisis in Europe, direct spending from many governments was cut back, and “monetary policy” was left to take centre stage, with increasingly larger and larger amounts of money lent, rather than spent, into the economy via the financial system.

Despite cutbacks in government spending across the world, financial markets, central bankers and economists continued to predict that these aggressive “monetary policy” interventions, such as zero or even negative interest rates, and “quantitative easing” would be enough to kick start the economy.  The fact that these supposedly temporary measures are still in place today, shows that they were wrong.

So why didn’t this policy work, and why were economists still predicting a recovery as recently as early 2020, before the Covid crisis hit?

These were the questions about which I obsessed in 2010 and 2011.

At that time, I was an interest rates trader at Citibank in London.  My job was to predict when interest rates would recover, and I had witnessed markets incorrectly predict a recovery for the previous three years.  I was also, at that time, still living in my family home, a small terraced house squeezed in between a railway track and a disused factory in Ilford, East London.

I had studied Economics at the London School of Economics, and I knew that economic theory suggested that the huge amount of cheap loans being lent out by the Bank of England should stimulate the economy.  But I could not see any trace of a meaningful effect on the people who grew up with me in this working-class corner of East London.

At the same time, I was working on an enormous trading floor, in a glittering skyscraper in Canary Wharf.  I was immersed in financial markets, which had been rocketing despite the despondent economy, and was working shoulder to shoulder with millionaires, who got richer each day that financial markets rose.

It started to become apparent to me that “monetary policy” had an achilles heel.  No matter how much money global central banks poured into the economy, cheap loans were only available to the rich.  Not only that, but the rich were not spending the money – they were using it to buy assets, such as stocks and property, which did nothing to boost the economy.  Inequality was the missing link.  Unless the money was channeled to ordinary and poorer working families, rather than just the wealthy, it would never boost the economy, only asset prices.

My conclusion from this was inescapable, but depressing – since inequality was at the heart of the crisis, but was not being addressed, the economic crisis would be interminable: wages would stay low forever, and new money would constantly be pushed, via wealthier individuals, into stock and house prices.  The economy would never get a boost.  Upon realising this, in 2011, I started to bet that there would be no end to the economic recession.  By the end of that year, I was Citibank’s most profitable trader in the world.

This is a bleak economic forecast, and I believe it is true.  But it also provides profound opportunity for improvement and change.  Our current tools have not been working to boost the economy, but that is only because we have been failing to address this key issue.  Richer people tend to save their money, whereas ordinary working families spend almost everything they make.  When too much wealth accumulates in the hands of very wealthy families, it causes problems of underspending in society, and oversaving, pushing down wages and interest rate and crushing the economy, whilst simultaneously making housing unaffordable and pushing stock markets up.  All of these problems can be resolved, and both the economy and collective wellbeing can be improved enormously, if we only start treating wealth inequality as a serious issue and policy goal.

I have personally made millions by betting that failing to tackle wealth inequality will keep our economy in a slump forever.  I firmly believe that wealth, well paid work, and good quality, secure housing could be a realistic possibility for all if we deal with wealth inequality as a society.

The only realistic path to reduced wealth inequality is a serious change to the way that we tax the super rich.  Reducing wealth inequality is not about increasing tax on hard working, well paid workers and professionals.  These people may be relatively high income, but they generally do not hold huge amounts of wealth.  Billionaires and multi-millionaires, increasingly sitting on large amounts of inherited, family wealth, do not earn their incomes from working and, as a result, do not pay income taxes.  Instead, they pay other, lower taxes, which are often completely avoidable.  If we allow this situation to continue, it is inevitable that wealth inequality will increase, and our economic and societal problems will get worse.  We must amend the tax system so that the richest pay higher rates of tax than the rest of us, not lower rates than their cleaners, as they often do now.

It will not be an easy task, undoubtedly.  The super rich have the best tax lawyers and often the ability to amplify their voice in the media. They will proclaim that leaving them untaxed is essential for the economy.  I have made a career and a fortune by betting that isn’t true.

If you want to know more about the damage that wealth inequality does to our economy and society, please feel free to watch and share my videos on Youtube, or to read the full theory on my website.

A prosperous, dignified future can be available to all of us.  But only if we fix wealth inequality.

Photo by Simran Singh Mohan

Francesco Temperini

About the author: Francesco Temperini is a 24-year old MSc graduate in Environmental and Development Economics and a member of WEAll Youth, located in Rome, Italy

I joined WEAll Youth because I think that sharing ideas between people moved by the same interests could lead to a new shape of economic thinking: with Multidimensional Wellbeing as a focal point around which all people and institutions converge.

From my academic experience, I developed a passion for and interest in multidimensional analysis of wellbeing, which I applied in an empirical study in the city I live in, Rome.

Often, economic indicators are synonymous with quality of life, and many times the development of a country is taken into account to measure the wellbeing of that country. 

Multi-dimensional analysis speaks to the importance of reshaping the way we measure quality of life and can promote economic thinking centred on how people feel about their lives and how much they are satisfied with it.

Having studied Rome divided in its 15 municipalities and having chosen a representative sample for each municipality, there are lots of inequalities between municipalities for any dimension of wellbeing such as the multidimensional index. This is the aggregation of 9 different dimensions (including: safety, environment, housing, education, satisfactory work, enjoying free time, health, social engagement, travel mobility).

The interesting findings are shown in the image below: in the richest municipalities (highest level of income) there weren’t the highest levels of wellbeing (multidimensional wellbeing indicator). Firstly I was surprised by this result, but then I realised this outcome confirmed my research thesis: profit is merely a tool to reach the state of wellbeing.

The findings can be seen in these two maps: the left one is the level of income maps for municipalities (the darkest colour represents highest values of wellbeing); and the right one is the multidimensional well being map, showing the aggregation of all the nine dimensions I found in my research (the darker colour are higher values of wellbeing).

How can you understand multi-dimensional wellbeing where you are?

For anyone interested in measuring wellbeing in his/her neighbourhood, city, region or country, here is a summary of the measurement process.

First step: take a sample of the population you are interested in to measure the wellbeing. It’s difficult to interview all the population, so it could be good to take a representative sample, divided by age, gender or professional status.

The sampling processes are different, you can choose which one you prefer for example from the this book’s chapter nine. In Rome, used sampling by quota.

Second step:  create qualitative research with your sample using a focus group investigation method (group interview composed of a moderator and 6-8 people). In these groups, it’s important to study the aspects of individuals’ life values (the subjective and objective ones). It is crucial to make a group analysis to understand how people interact in the same dimensions of their wellbeing, as well as to underline the individuals’ different points of view and the minority groups’ ideas.

These steps were necessary in my case study because it’s helpful to see how people that live in the same city interact and express the same concerns but different issues related to living in an urban area, as I found in my research, different municipalities have different levels of wellbeing.

Third step: After all this qualitative research, there is an evaluation with all the outcomes of the focus group. The reader will summarise the same issues on a singular dimension and then measure it with more than one indicator( as an example of a dimension: “safety in Rome” is composed of two indicators, a subjective one and an objective one).

Fourth step: Following this process line, it’s time to create a survey based on the focus group’s outcomes, with the survey you can measure the achievement of any wellbeing dimension of the people interviewed.

Fifth step: Then, the sampling population fills out the questionnaires for your city, region or country.

Sixth step: Finally, when you have collected enough data (survey could be filled out either physically or online) of the sample that you choose as representative, you can analyse and aggregate the answers.

Remember that the wellbeing of an individual is currently a much-debated issue. Over time, an attempt has been made to define and measure it at a national as well as an individual level, and even today, no common solution has been found: it clearly is a definition that encompasses several dimensions within it, as well as the approach of human development.

by: Marco Senatore

Many have said that after COVID-19, the world will have to embrace a totally new path. We will need new instruments to make this happen.

The main reason why our current market economies do not serve human beings is, in a nutshell, the following: the means have become the ends. That is to say, what is supposed to be a means to deliver wellbeing (namely money), becomes the goal in itself.

Consider environmentalism. It is of course extremely important to stress the economic and political cost of inaction against climate change. But focusing almost exclusively on the monetary aspects of acting or not acting on climate change overlooks the inherent value of nature for human wellbeing, even without a monetary value attached to it. 

A new political, social, and economic order must be based on values: what is intrinsically good and worthy to be pursued. The values of dignity, nature, connection, fairness, and participation are key for reorienting the economy and putting people and the planet at the centre of it. 

For this purpose, I propose a Market for (moral, organisational, and cultural) Values.

How could we keep a market economy functioning, while putting values at its centre? 

In a ‘Market for Values’, instead of exchanging money, firms, individuals and local communities would exchange documents through a centralised platform. 

Instead of just reflecting economic worth (like money does), these documents would reflect economic worth in terms of the benefits experienced by their previous owners, categorised by high level values, including social justice, environmentalism, inclusivity, propensity for innovation, and multiculturalism. 

For each given value e.g. social justice, the State would define a list of quantitative indicators to measure progress toward it e.g. equal pay for equal work. ‘Documents’ would then be worth more or less based on how well they scored on these indicators.

Each document would not be exchanged with money, but only with other documents and with goods and services. These documents would be a complementary means of exchange with money.

But, unlike money, which is value-neutral, and which does not foster any reflection on the moral and cultural benefits of transactions, these documents would make economic transactions possible and contribute to progressively building a collective awareness about the importance of some values. 

How would growth in a ‘Market for Values’ take place?

In order to enhance the worth of in a document in terms of the value of environmentalism, for example, indicators to act upon with might include:

  • For local communities: a minimum percentage increase in green areas over a period of time. 
  • For companies: a minimum reduction in CO2 emissions and a given level of investment in negative emissions technologies. 
  • For individuals: to volunteer for green charities. 

After taking actions to enhance the environmental value of the ‘document’, these documents can be sold on the centralised platform for higher value goods and services or other documents.

Reconciling Economics with Ethics

Since the centralised platform would be open and transparent, even after having sold these documents, it is likely that companies for example would continue to practice environmentally responsible practices, to maintain their reputation. 

A Market of Values would foster a culture of prioritising the ends e.g. social justice, before deciding on what the means should be, such as the jobs we create, the cities in which we live, and the skills that we may want to acquire. Existing Wellbeing frameworks, such as the ones adopted in Iceland and Scotland, rely on quantitative indicators for desired policy outcomes or outputs at the national level. By contrast, in a ‘Market for Values’, quantitative indicators would measure inputs, the collective actions of all people. This would also foster a spirit of community, as I have highlighted in my book Exchanging Autonomy. Inner Motivations as Resources for Tackling the Crises of Our Times.

If in the Market, we saw that the worth of documents promoting certain values is growing faster or greater than the worth of ‘money’, we would know that we are making progress toward an economic system that centres wellbeing.

You can read more about the mechanics of a ‘Market for Values’ in several articles on the World Bank’s blog, London School of Economics’ Business Review, openDemocracy, Berlin’s Forum for a New Economy, New School’s Public Seminar and the Sheffield Political Economy Research Institute.

What do you think of the idea of a Market for Values? Please share your thoughts!

Marco Senatore works at the Ministry of Economy and Finance of Italy. Marco formulated this proposal for a ‘Market for Values’ in his book, “Exchanging Autonomy. Inner Motivations As Resources for Tackling the Crises of Our Times” (Xlibris, 2014). This article represents only his personal views. You can connect with Marco on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn.  

Marco Senatore works at the Ministry of Economy and Finance of Italy. Marco formulated this proposal for a ‘Market for Values’ in his book, “Exchanging Autonomy. Inner Motivations As Resources for Tackling the Crises of Our Times” (Xlibris, 2014). This article represents only his personal views. You can connect with Marco on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn.  

The Faces of the Wellbeing Economy Movement is a series highlighting the many informed voices from different specialisms, sectors, demographics, and geographies in the Wellbeing Economy movement. This series will share diverse insights into why a Wellbeing Economy is a desirable and viable goal and the new ways of addressing societal issues, to show us how to get there. This supports WEAll’s mission to move beyond criticisms of the current economic system, towards purposeful action to build a Wellbeing Economy.